Littleleaf European Linden

Tilia cordata

Leaves: Deciduous. Leaves are 1½ -3” long and are in the shape of a slightly lopsided, irregular heart with a serrated outline. The point is long and drawn out. Dark green color in summer. Yellow-green to yellow fall color.

Bark/Twigs: Brown-grey bark, somewhat textured with narrow, scaly ridges.

Flowers/Fruit: Several small yellow flowers grow in a small cluster attached to a green, curved bract that will dry to light brown. Flowers are not very showy, but incredibly fragrant and loved by bees. Blooms in early summer (June-July). Flowers develop into small, brown nutlets (usually groups of 2-3) that spin to the ground with the dried bract when mature. Bracts often hang onto the tree through the winter.

Mature size and shape: Large. 40-60’h x 20-30’w. ½ to ⅔ in spread. Pyramidal shape in youth, upright oval to pyramidal-rounded and densely branched in old age. Stays quite symmetrical.

General information/special features: Plant in full sun to partial shade. Prefers moist, well-drained soil, and is not exceptionally drought tolerant. More tolerant of heat and compact soil than the American Linden. Does well in rough city conditions. Quite pollution tolerant.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Good shade and street tree for residential areas. Often used in urban settings along streets or in parking lots. Medium growing rate. High maintenance. Flowers and seeds can be messy. Aphids are a common problem, creating a sticky substance on leaves. Readily transplanted.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  3-7

Family/Origin: Tiliaceae – Linden. A European native which has been naturalized in U.S. known in the UK as a lime tree (not to be confused with the citrus lime)

Campus use: Common. Can be found in President's Circle and northeast of Biology (Bld 84).

American Linden

Tilia americana

Leaves: Deciduous. Uneven heart-shaped leaves with a pointed tip, are 4-8" long, almost as wide, coarsely serrate leaf edge with long pointed teeth. Dark green color above, paler beneath. Sometimes changing to pale yellow in the fall, usually leaves fall off green.

Bark/Twigs: Gray brown, shallowly furrowed bark. Broken into many long, narrow, flat-topped, scaly ridges, very tough and fibrous. Smooth and gray-green on young stems. Twigs usually zigzag.

Flowers/Fruit: Flowers are light yellow, ⅓-½" wide, arranged in 2-3” wide bunches of 5-10 flowers attached by stalks to a light green, 3-4" long, leafy bract. Extremely fragrant flowers appear in late June-early July. Bees supposedly make the finest honey from these flowers. Fruit is a nut-like, round seed (drupe), covered with fine fuzz (pubescence), ⅓-½" in diameter, grown in clusters. The bract dries and turns light brown when the fruit matures in late summer.

Mature size and shape: Large. 50-60’h (x 20’w) with a spread of ½ to ⅔ the height. Rounded to oval shape with numerous, slender, low, spreading branches. Pyramidal in youth.

General information/special features: Plant in full sun to light shade. Shade tolerant. Does best in rich, moist woodlands and along river bottoms, and does well on soils with fairly high pH. It has a tough inner bark (bast, from which it derives the name basswood) used to make rope and mats. Trees are commercially harvested for their light wood which is used to make furniture, shipping crates, boxes, and veneer.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Popular large shade tree. Average growing rate. Average maintenance. Seeds can be messy. Free of most serious pests, though aphids can be a nuisance. Sprout (sucker) growth can be a problem. Transplants readily. It has larger leaves and is more dense than the Littleleaf Linden.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  2-8

Family/Origin: Tiliaceae – Linden. Native to most of the northern and eastern U.S. as far west as the eastern edge of the Great Plains. Ranging from Maine to Florida, west to eastern North Dakota, south to Oklahoma and Louisiana.

Campus use: Somewhat common. Can be found in President’s Circle or south of Carolyn Tanner Irish Humanities (Bld 45).