Scotch Pine

Pinus sylvestris

Leaves: Evergreen. Twisted, 1-3” long needles grow in bundles of 2. Color varies greatly from yellowish-green to blue-green.

Bark/Twigs: Upper portions of the tree and younger branches have orangish-brown to butterscotch colored, thin bark which peels off in papery flakes.  Bark develops fissures and turns dark grey with age.

Flowers/Fruit: Male cones are orangish and release yellow pollen in spring. Small woody female cones are 1½-3” long, ovalish shape, and gray or dull brown in color. Scales on cones have raised pyramid-shaped tips with no prickle.

Mature size and shape: Large. 30-60’h x 30-40’w. Loosely or irregularly pyramidal shape with negative space between branches. Top flattens and spreads with age.

General information/special features: Plant in full sun. Moist, well-drained soil. Tolerates poor conditions and drier sites well. One of the most commonly used species for a Christmas tree.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Good ornamental evergreen tree. Works as a medium screen or single tree. Average growing rate. Low maintenance. Transplants easily and adapts to nearly all climates. Due to its large natural geographic range, there is considerable genetic variation in needle color and plant vigor, so be sure to choose a cultivar that is best suited for your area. Can have a problem with chlorotic or yellowing needles in alkaline soils.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  3-7

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. One of the most widely distributed pines, ranging from Norway and Scotland to Spain, western Asia and northeastern Siberia. Also called Scots pine.

Campus use: Somewhat common. Can be found south of the Student Services Building (Bld 40) or north of the Erying Chemisty Buliding (Bld 85).

Ponderosa Pine

Pinus ponderosa

Leaves: Evergreen. Long needles 6-10" in groups of 2 and 3 and are slightly curved. Dark green or yellowish green color.

Bark/Twigs:  Younger bark is dark brown, almost black. Older scaly bark develops fissures of oranges and reds. Older bark uniquely smells like vanilla, especially on hot days or after rain.

Flowers/Fruit: Inconspicuous flowers in spring. Male cones are orange and short. Woody female cones are egg-shaped, 3-6” long, 1½-2” wide, and reddish brown. Each scale on the cone is armed with a short, sharp spine or prickle on the tip.

Mature size and shape: Large. 60-80’h x 25-30’w. Does grow taller, particularly in its native habitat. Pyramidal shape. Top becomes more rounded and irregular with age.

General information/special features: Native to mountainous areas in southern two-thirds of Utah. It is also one of America’s most abundant tree species and was used extensively by the Native Americans. Lewis and Clark used it to make canoes after they crossed the Rocky Mountains. Plant in full sun. Does not perform well in shade. Grows in most types of soil. Moist, well-drained soil is best. Resists fire. Drought resistant.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Good evergreen shade tree. Can be used as a group planting or single tree in large areas. May be too large for some residential landscapes. Makes a fair screen or windbreak. Excellent tree for timber. Average growing rate. Low maintenance.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  3-7

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. Native to mountainous areas in southern ⅔ of Utah and throughout the West.

Campus use: Somewhat common. Can be found north east of the Erying Chemistry Building (Bld 85) or east of the Hunstman Sports Center (Bld 90).

Pinyon Pine

Pinus edulis

Leaves: Evergreen. Needles grow 1-2" long in groups of 2. Dark grey-green or yellow-green color. Features pleasant smell when needles are crushed.

Bark/Twigs: Fairly thin and ridged bark.

Flowers/Fruit: Inconspicuous flowers in spring. Male flowers red, female yellow. Woody cone with very short or no stalk. 1-2½” long. Oval to round. Cones are egg-shaped and open widely like a floret. Seeds are edible (pine nuts) and are an important food for certain Southwestern Indians.

Mature size and shape: Medium. 15-20'h x 15-20'w. May rarely reach up to 50'. Round shape, somewhat bushy, but picturesque. Branches are low.

General information/special features: Native to Utah. Plant in full sun. Intolerant of shade. Drought tolerant. Performs best in dry soils. Over-watering causes root rot. Adapts to a variety of soil types as long as there is drainage.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Good, low-maintenance tree for native plantings or dry areas. Works well as a screen. Can be planted near power lines. Often does poorly in residential sites because of overwatering. Slow growing rate. Low maintenance.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  5-8

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. Native to the semi-arid areas of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, southern Wyoming, eastern and central Utah, northern Arizona, New Mexico, and the Guadalupe Mountains in westernmost Texas. Pinyon occurs most commonly at mid-elevations between 4,500 ft to 7,500 ft.

Campus use: Somewhat uncommon. Can be found in the lawn west of Stewart (Bld 6) or south of Performing Arts (Bld 17).

Limber Pine

Pinus flexilis

Leaves: Evergreen. Needles are thin, flexible, sharply pointed, and slightly twisted. Needles are 2½-3½” long with thin, white lines running along their length and grow in bundles of 5. Needle groups cluster at the ends of branchlets and point outwards. Branches are flexible and could almost be tied in knots. Dark, bluish green color needles, sometimes greyish to silver blue-green.

Bark/Twigs: Bark is thin, smooth, and light grey when younger. As the tree ages, fissures form rectangular shapes in the trunk and bark turns grey-brown.

Flowers/Fruit: Inconspicuous flowers during late spring or early summer. Rosey, purple, or green in color. Male cones are small and light orange, mostly inconspicuous. Female cones are narrow, 3-6" long, light brown, and woody. Female cones grow either alone or in groups of 2-3.

Mature size and shape: Large. 30-50’h x 15-35’w. Usually ½ as wide as tall.

Pyramidal when younger, but the crown flattens and broadens with age. Flexible branches give this tree an elegant, slightly weeping appearance.

General information/special features: Plant in full sun to partial shade. Well-drained soil preferred. Does tolerate drier conditions or compacted soil. Well-adapted for rocky soils and alkaline conditions.  Do not overwater. National champion is 58’ by 46’ at Uinta National Forest, UT.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Native to higher elevations in Utah. Graceful ornamental pine with soft needles. Makes a great specimen but not an effective wind break. Slow growing rate. Low maintenance. Transplants well.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  4-7

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. Native to higher elevations in Utah and the interior West.

Campus use: Somewhat common. Can be found south of Marriott Library (Bld 86) or south of the Union Building (Bld 53).

Lacebark Pine

Pinus bungeana

Leaves: Evergreen.  Needles in bundles or groups of 3. They are lustrous medium to dark green in color, 2-4” long, and finely toothed. Needles are very stiff and ridged as well as sharp to the touch.

Bark/Twigs: Exfoliating, scaly bark in irregular patches of green, white, and brown, like a London planetree. Young stems are greenish with irregular whitish or brownish areas interspersed.

Flowers/Fruit: Inconspicuous flowers. Cones are ovoid, 2-3” long, approximately 2” across, and light yellowish brown.

Mature size and shape: Large. 30-50’h x 20-35’w. Pyramidal to rounded shape, often with many trunks in youth. Becomes open, picturesque, flat-topped and broad-spreading with age.

General information/special features: Plant in full sun. Prefers well-drained soil. Tolerant of a variety of conditions, including pavement nearby. Fairly cold and alkaline-soil tolerant. Somewhat drought tolerant.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Good specimen tree. Slow growing rate. Low maintenance. Susceptible to breakage under heavy snow.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  4-8

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. Native to China.

Campus use: Uncommon. Can be found on the east side of the Sill Center (Bld 51).

Himalayan or Bhutan Pine

Pinus wallichiana

Leaves: Evergreen. Needles in bundles of 5, grayish-green color, 5-8" long. The slender needles often bend sharply at the base to hang down to give a pendulous, drooping, and feathery appearance when older.

Bark/Twigs: Orangish-brown to grayish-brown colored bark. Smooth when young, becoming shallowly fissured with flaky plates when mature.

Flowers/Fruit: Flowers inconspicuous. Fruit is a large, woody cone 6-10" long, 2" wide, light-brown when ripe and very resinous with a 1-2" long stalk.

Mature size and shape: Large. 30-50’h, width is ½ to ⅔ height. Loosely and broadly pyramidal shape when young. Graceful and often feathered appearance.

General information/special features: Plant in full sun. Shade intolerant. Sandy, well-drained, acidic soil is best. Not recommended for shallow, chalky soil. The Himalayan Pine is used to produce turpentine, which is a common solvent. Historically, turpentine was also used for medicinal purposes.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Large ornamental evergreen tree. Slow to medium growing rate. Low maintenance. Fairly tough, but best planted in a location sheltered from dry summer winds and late-day winter sun.  May be marginally cold-hardy in Utah. Somewhat difficult to transplant.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  5-7

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. Native to Afghanistan, Nepal, and China.

Campus use: Uncommon. The tree on the north side of the intersection of North Campus Drive and Central Campus Drive is on the Utah Big Tree Registry.

Bristlecone Pine

Pinus aristata

Leaves: Evergreen.  Dark green, stiff, curved needles, 1-1½” long, in groups of 5.  Usually lightly covered with white specks of dried resin. Branches look like long bottle-bushes.

Bark/Twigs: Thin, smooth, and gray-white bark on young stems. Furrowed and red-brown on older stems.

Flowers/Fruit: Inconspicuous flowers. Fruit is a woody, brown-red cone with a short stalk. Cone is about 3-3½" long, with thick scales and tipped with a long bristle. Seeds are small and winged.

Mature size and shape: Medium. 20-25’h x 15-20’w. Irregular form.

General information/special features: Utah native. Plant in full sun. Shade intolerant. Prefers well-drained, dry, rocky soil. Deep roots. Drought tolerant. The Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva) has an exceptionally long life span. It is common for a bristlecone pine to live for thousands of years, and the oldest recorded specimen was aged at approximately 5,000 years old. The number of resin ducts in the two species distinguishes between the Great Basin, P. longaeva with one duct and the Rocky Mountain species, P. aristata with two. The Great Basin species appears to have a native range more in UT, NV, & CA while the Rocky Mountain species is more widespread in CO, AZ, & NM.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Specimen tree. Slow growing rate. Low maintenance. Hard to transplant. The wood is very dense and resinous, and thus resistant to invasion by insects, fungi, and other potential pests. The tree's longevity is due in part to the wood's extreme durability.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  4-7

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. Native in scattered mountainous areas in the interior West, including Utah.

Campus use: Uncommon. Can be found planted around the Student Life Center (Bld 110) and north of Public Saftey (Bld 301).

Bosnian Pine

Pinus leucodermis

Leaves: Evergreen. Glossy, stiff needles grow in pairs 2-4" long from a ½" sheath. Needles are sharp and curve slightly. Dark green color.

Bark/Twigs: When young, the ash-grey bark is smooth with evenly spaced dark flecks. Older trees have deep fissures, exposing brownish-grey splotches.

Flowers/Fruit: Inconspicuous flowers in spring. 4-5" long cones start out blue-purple color and turn yellow-brown at maturity.

Mature size and shape: Medium. 25-35'h x 15-20'w. Pyramidal and dense shape.

General information/special features: Plant in full sun. Prefers moist, well-drained soil. Will tolerate heavy clay soils as long as drainage is good.  Tolerates dry or chalky soils. Tolerant of severe cold and wind. Often reaches alpine tree line in native habitat. Synonymous with Pinus heldreichii.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Good alternative to larger pines for smaller spaces because of its relatively compact mature size. Used in small group plantings. Average growing rate. Low maintenance.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  4-8

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. Native to the higher elevations of southern Europe, specifically the dry limestone soils in the mountain areas of the Balkans, Italy and Greece.

Campus use: Somewhat common. Large specimens can be found on southwest corner of Price Art Museum (Bld 35) or south side of John Widtsoe Building (Bld 9).

Austrian Pine

Pinus nigra

Leaves: Evergreen. Stiff needles come in bundles of 2 and are 3-5" long, with some varieties reaching up to 6" long. Dark green color.

Bark/Twigs: Bark is dark gray-brown in color and not scaly, but rough. Bark develops deep, brown furrows as tree matures which turns mottled grey or grey-black.

Flowers/Fruit: Produces yellow pollen in the spring. Fruit is a reddish-brown woody cone about 2-3" long, 1” wide without prickles on scales.

Mature size and shape: Large. 50-70'h x 20-40'w. Can reach 100' or more in its native habitat. Pyramidal when young. Top broadens with maturity and form becomes more oval.

General information/special features: Plant in full sun. Does not tolerate shade. Moist but well-drained soil is best. Tolerates a variety of soil types including clay and sandy soils. Tolerates drought moderately well. Very hardy tree. Considered the toughest of all European pines. Grows well in Utah. Over 217 million Austrian pines were planted during the nation's great dust bowl shelterbelt project. The species has thrived for over 200 years in some of the worst soil and climate conditions America has to offer.

Landscape use and Maintenance: Good evergreen shade tree. May also be used as a screen or windbreak. Average growing rate. Low maintenance.

USDA Hardiness Zone:  4-7

Family/Origin: Pinaceae – Pine. A native of Europe, from Austria to central Italy, Greece and Yugoslavia. First introduced to the US in 1759.

Campus use: Extremely common. Can be found east of the Marriott Library (Bld 86) or north of Skaggs Biology (Bld 82).